BADLANDS CREATED BY WATER EROSION IN ZONOUZ VALLEY IN IRAN

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Dr. Seyed Esmaeil Asghapour Islamic Azad University, Shahre Rey Branch, Iran
                                 e _  asghapour 12 @ yahoo. com



                                                By Dr. Asgharpour. Zonouz Badland

  
 Abstract:

This study focuses on the badlands created by water erosion in Zonouz valley.  Zonouz is a small Iranian town in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran. It is located between two mountain ranges and has very cold and snowy weather in winter and cool summers. River terraces and alluvial fans which were built by Zonouz river are considerably important in that area.

Zonouz river is located on 45 degrees and  minutes E longitude and 38 degrees  minutes N latitude between Aras river and Marand plain. It derives from Soltan- Sanjar mountain in the east and flows to the west. In Cher- Cher area, it joins to Zilber river and finally enters to the Caspian sea. This paper based on GIS methods, topographic map 1: 50.000 and geologic map 1: 100.000 scale in order to find out, the elevations, gradients, hydrographic layers, lithologic layers and orogenic movements which have affected on degradation of zonouz valley.

The amount of rainfall, type of soil, gradient of land and speed of water are the main factors that affect on land erosion.

The volume of water varies during the seasons. It reaches to its maximum rate in April and minimum rate in August. In 1980 the average discharge of river was 3.4.

After twenty eight years, there is a considerable change in river discharge.

The purpose of paper is to show the terraces and alluvial fans before the dam are  built on the river.

Flow of water in the area plays a major role in creating landforms. Thus, fluvial processes are the geomorphic process associated with running water and fluvial landforms and landscapes are produced by streams.

Rivers degrade (erode) and aggrade (deposit). Hence, the landscape contains degradational or erosional landforms which are created when gravels,pebble and sands are removed. Depositional landforms are resulted from the accumulation of sediment. Badland of Zonouz is an example of such an erosional landscape. Resistant material on hills has given a beautiful shape to the hills in attracting tourists (Photo 1).

Key words :erosion, landform, landscape, aggradation, degradation, fluvial.